MAAAS Conference Abstracts
MAAAS 2022 Conference Abstracts
Abiy Haile, Archie Heddings, & Solomon Mengistu
Ways to Improve Orthopedics in Ethiopia and in the US Through our Collaborative International Trauma Fellowship on this topic we will describe experience of 2 orthopedic surgeons travelling from Ethiopia to University of Kansas what they observed to improve orthopedic quality of care and possible ways to solve challenges and short coming in Ethiopia and US orthopedic practice.
Assessing user preferences for design characteristics of oral dissolvable strips for pediatric HIV medication: a qualitative study
Background: Current infant antiretroviral therapy (ART) formulations pose barriers to daily adherence due to complex weight-based dosing, conspicuous preparation to reconstitute crushed or dispersible tables, and poor palatability, jeopardizing infant ART adherence. Our team has previously established proof-of-principal for multi-drug oral dissolvable strips (ODS) as alternative pediatric ART formulations with the potential to overcome these challenges and improve pediatric ART adherence and outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess user (caregiver and provider) preferences for ODS and its packaging to inform ODS development.
Methods: Guided by concepts of user-centered design, we conducted key informant interviews with 30 HIV care providers and 9 focus group discussions with 72 caregivers of children living with HIV at 3 Kenyan hospitals. All KII and FGD were audio recorded and translated/transcribed verbatim and hand coded for a-priori and emergent themes.
Results: Caregivers and providers expressed a strong desire for an easier way to administer medication, especially among children too young to swallow tablets whole, and expressed enthusiasm around the idea of ODS. Key preferences for ODS included a pleasant taste; one strip per dose with no need to measure or cut; small size with rapid dissolution; clear markings and instructions; and no special storage requirements. For packaging, stakeholders seemed to prefer individually wrapped strips within a dispenser. The individual packaging should be durable, waterproof, and easy to dispose of in communal spaces. They should also be easy to open, with clear serration and markings on where to open. The dispenser holding the strips should be durable, re-usable, accommodating of various refill frequencies, and easy to use for children as young as 6.
Discussion: The concept of ODS was highly acceptable to caregivers of children living with HIV and HIV care providers. By engaging stakeholders in an iterative design process starting from the early phases of design and development, we will maximize the likelihood of developing a product that is acceptable to the caregiver and infant, therefore leading to sustainable adherence.
Community wellbeing and local development in heritage environments in a covid-19 era: the case of the Bandagry historic area, Lagos State, Nigeria
Community wellbeing and local development in heritage environments in a covid-19 era: the case of the Badagry historic area, Lagos State, Nigeria ABSTRACT Historic and culturally rich environments create avenues for distinct cultural, social, and economic activities. In the past years, the Covid-19 pandemic has negatively affected the heritage and tourism industry which are central components in the sustenance of historic towns, especially in African countries, where there is a growing awareness of the socioeconomic benefits of heritage. The Badagry town is host to natural and cultural heritage resources that support the community's livelihood and wellbeing, and these heritage resources have the potential to drive its growth. With the aid of interviews, document reviews, observation, and focus groups, this study explored the community values of Badagry and how those values affect community wellbeing and development potential as perceived by residents of the communities. The consequence of this study lies in its contribution to the increasing knowledge domain of heritage and its inherent qualities in promoting community wellbeing and local development in historic communities based on evidence deduced from the study. The concepts of well-being and development were broadly hinged in this study to include social, economic, psychological, and cultural dimensions. Findings reveal three central aspects regarding the community wellbeing and development in the historic area: the direct link between economic sustainability and psychological wellbeing of the community; traditional practices and cultural activities as a catalyst for social cohesion, a critical determinant of social wellbeing; and access and proximity to natural environments and sites within a serene location promotes emotional wellbeing. Keywords: Heritage resources, community wellbeing, local development, Badagry, Lagos State
Oily Lands Rusty Wombs: Oil Exploration and Sexual Reproductive Health in Niger Delta 1957-1992
Industrial activities and their disturbing ecological consequences are well documented in the annals of Historical scholarship. However, there is a dearth of historical works that have documented the effects of mining and exploration activities on sexual health, reproductive or maternal health, and infant health, in Nigeria. Yet, scientific studies have shown that oil exploration emits carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and benzene which causes radiation capable of causing challenges to reproductive health such as birth defects in children, and diminishing fertility among women often leading to miscarriage and causing a high rate of infant mortality. It is therefore not a coincidence that there is a rise in the incidences of infant mortality rate, with 104 infant deaths in 1000 and an increase in maternal mortality rates with 800 maternal deaths in 100,000, and a diminishing fertility rate among women domicile in the Oil rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria according to UNICEF. Consequently, this attempt looks into the effects of oil exploration and oil spills on sexual reproductive health, and infant health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria between 1957 which marked the first oil exploration in Oloibri a south-southern Nigeria region that marked the third phase of primary health care development in Nigeria with the establishment of National Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NPHCDA). The above brings to the fore pertinent questions as to how gendered power relation shape the sexual and maternal health status of women in the region under review, what are the responses of oil multinationals and state actors, and finally what is the role of the philanthropic organization in curbing these public health menaces. To answer these questions, this paper adopts the use of historical analysis, using primary sources such as archival documents from the National Archive Enugu, newspaper sources, medical reports from primary health care dispensaries of the region, official publications by stakeholder organizations, Shell, Exxon Mobile, Ministry of Health, Niger Delta Development Commission, as well as ethnographic sources using the real-life experiences of women of childbearing age in the region under review. This paper will also benefit from historical secondary sources such as the work of Gabriel Hetch, Rocio Gomez, Greg Mitman, and so on that have written about industrial activities and their ecological and public health challenges
Oil Exploration and Health Challenge in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
The Niger Delta region has been witnessing series of environmental issues in post -colonial Nigeria. The entry point in diagnosing these problems with the tendency of proffering viable solutions, is to meticulously examine the factors that gave impetus to these problems. A plethora of factors are seen as the banes, exacerbating health issues in the Niger Delta, which is majorly attributed to the nefarious activities of Multinational oil companies and government elites who are the beneficiaries of the revenue from oil production. These problems are the unfavorable governmental formulated policies, essential to the interest of Multinational oil companies, also leading to the pollution of air and drinkable water, destruction of wild life and biodiversity, destruction of soil fertility, constant depletion of the ozone layer as result of the burning of fossil fuel, degradation of farmland, toxic waste, destruction of aquatic and ecosystem, oil spillage, pipeline explosion, gas flaring, all these have deteriorated the health of the inhabitants in the oil producing environment. Suffice to say, it is ironical to say that the environmental policies put in place in the developed nations are not followed. Multinational oil companies are evacuating inhabitants from their abode and systematically marginalizing them. The aftermath of these hydra headed causes, lead to health problems like, reduction of human lifespan, predisposed to cancerous attack, hunger, cholera, malaria, and other deadly maladies. There has also been great concern from social ecologist individuals, who are concerned about social environment. They believe that Multinational companies are responsible for environmental problems, and they should be held responsible in providing them. Arising from a purposeful concern, Niger Delta region needs favorable health policies that are boldly progressive and would entrench environmental treatment and sustainable development. The objectives of this research is to explicitly look at the problems affecting health in the Niger Delta and suggest the panaceas for the problems.
Health outbreaks in African cities and state response to emergencies: Lagos, Nigeria as a case study.
Lagos state, Nigeria was formerly Nigeria’s administrative capital and still is the commercial capital of Nigeria. This paper examines the preparedness and response of the Lagos state government owned health institutions to emergency situations when there were outbreaks of diseases such as Lassa fever, and yellow fever in contemporary times i.e., since Nigeria’s return to democratic rule, in comparison to Ebola and Covid which attracted global attention.The paper seeks to investigate what the general populace (middle- and lower-class people) had to access in the face of these public health concerns in comparison to how both the Ebola and covid outbreaks were managed.
Leylah Ndinda, Estella Fondzeka, Essence Miller, Elisha Mutarahaza, Khulud Khudur
Helping Healthcare Providers Understand Black, African American, African Immigrants and Refugee Patients in Kansas City
Black, African American, African immigrant and refugee populations in the Midwest have been resilient historically. At the same time, Black populations in the Midwest have poor health due to structural and historical factors that keep them in survival mode instead of thrive mode. One challenge is the need for culturally centered healthcare delivery from healthcare providers. Advocating for healthcare delivery changes is necessary and important for producing systems-level change that support health and well-being for Black populations. This Roundtable discussion will feature community leaders in the Kansas City area who are committed to health and wellbeing of Black populations. Our Roundtable guests have deep experience in cultural humility and understanding related to Black populations in the Midwest and hope to provide healthcare practitioners and community members the tools they need to provide optimal health of Black populations in healthcare settings. Their aim is to share how healthcare providers can provide better care for: women/reproductive health, refugees, African immigrant, populations in Kansas City.
Michelle Cochran & Brian Kyololo
As the pandemic disrupted placed-based International Education Experiences, the undergraduate programs at the University of Kansas School of Nursing and Moi University School of Nursing in Kenya co-created a cultural collaboration. The result was the development of a virtual classroom program providing multicultural education with a bi-directional benefit and participation, with 179 students involved in the collaboration. This presentation will describe the blueprint for creating a virtual classroom collaboration, discuss student survey results, and end with the strengths, opportunities, and potential for future virtual programs.
Bidirectional Cooperation and the Evolution of EMT Training for the Ghana National Ambulance Service
Over a four-year period, cooperative bidirectional relationships have been established between KUMC and the Ghana National Ambulance Service (GNAS). This included an initial visit by Professor Ahmed Zakariah, CEO of GNAS and his team to observe emergency care and paramedic training at KUMC and community colleges in the Kansas City area. The following year Dr. Dennis Allin of KUMC conducted a 3-day EMT refresher course with the help of KUMC faculty and students from anesthesiology, nurse anesthesia and a KCK paramedic. For a 3-year period, Covid-19 paused travel between KUMC and Ghana. In November 2022, Dr Anthony Kovac will return to Ghana for Helping Babies Breathe instructor training for the GNAS.
Uganda has one of the highest obstetric fistula rates in the world. To address this, portable ultrasound machines were introduced to 18 Village health centers beginning in January of 2017 to diagnose high risk obstetric conditions that would mandate a cesarean section. Mothers were motivated to come to the village health centers to see their babies on “TV“. This then provided the opportunity to train midwives to educate mothers about obstetric fistula which can only be diagnosed at labor. Due to the poverty where we work, we also introduced micro financing to those mothers who could not pay their village health center fees. The mothers were granted a piglet and we’re trained in piggery Management and micro financing but also were required to pay two piglets back to the project to make it self-sustainable. Although Covid presented its challenges, we have nevertheless seen an increase in the number of mothers being scanned and coming in for their obstetric care.
Forced to adapt, prepared for the future
In 2020, restrictions associated with the pandemic forced educators to rapidly explore creative hybrid and virtual curriculum delivery options to ensure the competency of students. As a result, many programs and institutions are now considering how to use what we have learned from the pandemic to reach a broader population of students both locally and globally. This presentation will explore the shift from traditional higher education delivery toward the use of hybrid and virtual formats to increase enrollment, educate students where they live, build capacity in underserved areas and increase diversity by connecting students across the globe. Dr. Trujillo will share how expanding her classroom to include students and respiratory therapists in Ghana enriched the educational experience of all participants.
Anatole Balma & Angellar Manguvo
Impact of the Covid 19 on Education Systems in Afrique; lessons Learned and Way Ahead
According to the World Health Organization reports, the first case of Covid 19 in Africa is dated 14 February 2020. In comparison with Europe, North and South America, Africa has had a smaller number of people infected with the disease and similarly, has had a lesser number of deaths. Despite the paucity of its healthcare systems, the continent did relatively well in containing the effects of the disease. Some research suggest that this relative success is mainly due to various factors like the climate, low population density in big cities, the least significant number of mass migration, the relative youth of its population etc. Yet, ten years earlier, some countries on the continent have experienced terrible infectious disease like Ebola, Dengue, Zika that had prompted them to put in place effective health measures, strategies and responses that were resilient and regional in nature; therefore, they should have exhibited a better preparedness to the pandemic than they did. The Covid 19 pandemic has once again tested the healthcare systems of the continent but not just the one: the education systems have been equally tested.
Learning Barriers Facing Older Adults in Morocco During Covid-19
Social isolation, reduced human interactions, and loneliness are conditions which were exacerbated during the period when Covid-19 became a public health concern (January 2020 to present). In North Africa, specifically Morocco, adults encountered increased health issues resulting from the changes which occurred during the pandemic. In addition to the consequences Coronavirus has had on the health of Moroccan older Adults, there are barriers in education, learning and accessing information regarding how to optimize health. Older adults who live alone are subjects to isolation by means of being disconnected from institutions and communities. And with the increase of the measures of social distancing, the aging population suffer immensely from the shift in the quality of life, cognitive decline, barriers of the adoption technology, and more. This paper shares a brief coverage of the phenomenon of social isolation and learning barriers among the aging population in Morocco. The paper concludes with addressing the learning needs of this population by encouraging future research and best practices in this area of interest.
Francis Musoni, Angellar Manguvo, Nyasha Musoni, and Patrick Chinyamuchiko
The Covid-19 Lockdown and its Impact on Education in Zimbabwe: A Survey of Parents and Guardians of Students in Primary and Secondary Schools
This mixed methods study was carried out to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the education sector in Zimbabwe. An online survey to parents/guardians of students in primary and secondary schools in Zimbabwe was distributed between July 15 to September 25, 2020. The survey requested respondents to compare the quality of the educational experiences of their children before and during the COVID-19 induced lockdown and highlight some of the challenges they encountered while seeking to provide their children with access to education under lockdown. Additionally, the survey invited parents/guardians to state what they aspired the government to do to ensure the safety of their children if schools were to re-open before the COVID-19 pandemic came to an end. A total of 277 respondents completed the survey. The survey allowed respondents with multiple children in different types of schools to assess the specific experiences of each of their children. A total of 95 responses were for children in urban primary day schools, 75 for rural primary schools, 51 for boarding secondary schools, 48 in the rural secondary school’s category, 32 for private primary day schools, 23 for urban secondary day schools, 18 for private secondary day school’s category, and only 10 were for boarding primary schools, making a total of 352 responses. Results from the quantitative phase of the study showed that in general, parents/guardians were dissatisfied with their children’s access to education during the lockdown with those from rural areas expressing highest levels of dissatisfaction. Among other issues that emerged from the open-ended responses, respondents expressed that their children did not have adequate resources to continue learning under lockdown, that very little to nothing was being done to help children who were preparing for their national exams, and that they did not want their children to go back to school before the COVID-19 pandemic came to an end.
The Effects of COVID-19 on Nigerian Youth Civic Engagement
An Igbo adage says that it is when the wind blows that one sees the under-belly of a chicken. In other words, adverse times expose hidden aspects of a person, people, or a society, COVID-19 had that effect of the world as lots of issues came to the fore. Another Igbo adage says that it is during the time of an unplanned event or surprise that the might ones are revealed. Hence, in as much as COVID-19 exposed many weaknesses, however, many strengths were equally revealed. During the pandemic, the world shut down, grew more distant, yet closer through online connectedness. As people were more indoors, worked online, or simply watched what was happening in the media, a theme emerged. People were fed-up with certain situations. With the “Black Lives Matter” movement that started in the United states spreading across the world, Nigerian youth joined through the “End SARS” movement that has now culminated in the current “Obidient” or “Obi-Datti” movement. The Nigerian youth have now come together to demand a change through civic engagement. This paper studies the effects of COVID-19 on Nigerian youth civic engagements, explores examples of such engagement, and predicts a stronger Nigeria through the sustenance of such engagements
Felicitas Okorie and Regina Okorie
The Effect of Covid19 Pandemic in the Financial Inclusion of Small-Holder Women Farmers and Agro-Entrepreneurs in Nigeria (A Review).
Studies have shown that smallholder women farmers and agro-entrepreneurs (SWOFAE) comprise a significant proportion of farm holdings and responsible for 90% of food production and provision in Nigeria. Their role within the smallholder system include driving change towards sustainable farming systems, provision of a variety of healthy diets and diversifying in both livestock and crop production. Smallholder women majorly head agro-entrepreneurial activities especially in the informal sector where they add value to agricultural products, create wealth for farmers and the country at large. Regrettably, many SWOFAE are not financially included. Their exclusion, mostly driven by institutional and cultural barriers makes it difficult to increase income, farm investment, production and savings. As a result, these women account for a large proportion of the poor spread across Nigeria. Unfortunately, the Interventions put in place by government to contain the spread of Covid19 pandemic accentuated low output, income losses, high inflation, food-insecurity and poverty among the SWOFAE. However, a number of the studies reviewed revealed that, despite the mentioned negative effect covid19 pandemic on the SWOFAE, it also initiated the exigency for them to embrace increased financial inclusion through digital financial service (DFS) business models. The paper recommends that policy makers in consultation with stakeholders should develop and intensify functional DFS strategies to achieve the financial inclusion goal of poverty eradication.
Keywords: financial inclusion, Covid19, SWOFAE, DFS, poverty.
The Pandemic of Online Betting in Nigeria since COVID-19
Since the COVID-19 pandemic, many activities have moved online and almost everyone has an online presence. Due to the negative outcomes of COVID-19, the already poor Nigerian economy has crashed even further, not because the disease hit Nigeria so hard but because of the effect it has had on first world countries that resulted in the physical international movement of people, goods, and services coming to a halt. To survive and remain connected, almost everything moved online and became virtual. Gambling and sports betting exploded online especially with online influencers, vloggers, and motivational speakers becoming brand ambassadors and promoting these activities on their platforms thereby influencing their followers to patronize and engage in these activities. According to Peter Addison, a betting expert, it is believed that there are over 60 million betting customers in Nigeria today. This paper will examine the sudden explosion of online betting in Nigeria as well as its effect on the citizens such as increase in crime, poverty, and suicide rate among others. This paper will equally suggest some ways of countering these.
Kim Weaver, Belinda Chege, Salma Abdalla, Taj Suleyman, Farris Muhammad
Everyday Considerations and Everyday Resilience in the Life of a Black, African American, African Immigrant, or Refugee in the Midwest
The everyday life of a Black, African American, African immigrant and refugee in the Midwest is different than that of their white counterparts. Black populations in the Midwest have been resilient historically. Despite the structural and historical barriers that attempt to pull them back and the many everyday life challenges, Black populations continue to be resilient. Understanding the everyday life of Black populations can help us better design, plan, implement, and evaluate public health programs. This Roundtable discussion will feature community leaders in the Midwest who are committed to health and wellbeing of Black populations. Our Roundtable guests have first-hand experience living as Black, African American, Afro Arab, or African immigrant in the Midwest, the everyday considerations and at the same time the everyday resilience. Their aim is to share the everyday cultural considerations and successes that public health practitioners can incorporate to improve public health programs, policies, and practices in more equitable ways.